What are the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy?

July 20th 2022

An X-ray photoelectron spectrometer is an impressive bit of kit. As the detected photoelectrons are relatively low energy, the experiments are performed in ultra-high vacuum.  The spectrometer is typically constructed from bespoke stainless-steel components, with an array of pumps to create and maintain the vacuum.  The range of samples analysed and data generated from these spectrometers is equally impressive.  In a recently published article we have spoken to a number of our academic and industrial Users and asked what they use their instrument for.  It's not difficult to conclude that XPS is one of the primary analytical tools used for materials characterisation.